Carol Motsinger: "150 years ago, 12 men in Cincinnati took a chance on baseball and changed the world", Cincinnati Enquirer, May 3, 2019. Team Names: Cincinnati Reds, Cincinnati Redlegs, Cincinnati Red Stockings Seasons: 139 (1882 to 2020) Record: 10630-10422, .505 W-L% Playoff Appearances: 16 Pennants: 10 World Championships: 5 Winningest Manager: Sparky Anderson, 863-586, .596 W-L% More Franchise Info Before that, some teams had secretly paid some players. Baseball's first openly all-professional team was the Cincinnati Red Stockings, who were founded in 1869. It began in England with a game called Rounders. The city of Cincinnati lays claim to hosting the first truly professional baseball team, called the Red Stockings, which began play in 1869 and was undefeated in its first 81 games against amateur clubs. 5 Questions . The Red Stockings remained one of the few strongest teams on the field, losing only six games, but attendance declined badly, especially at home. May 4, 1869 – The 1869 Cincinnati Red Stockings, the first all-professional team, kick off the regular season with a 45-9 win over the Great Westerns of Cincinnati. It will be unveiled on the anniversary of the team's first-ever game, played at 3:45 p.m. May 4 in Cincinnati against another, well, Cincinnati club. Next year he picked up similar baseball duties, but the lingo is commonly stretched to call him a baseball "manager" from that time. An informal early 20th century American football association, the Ohio League, was the direct predecessor of the NFL, although neither of Ohio's modern NFL franchises trace their roots to an Ohio League club. The Red Stockings won by a score of forty-eight to fourteen. They embarked on two long road trips that year, winning all of their games. [13], Championship matches with professional teams 1869–1870, For the current Major League Baseball team that has played since 1882, see. ... What are farm teams and how are they used. Eventually, the Boston Red Stockings adopted the name Boston Braves; the club is now based in Atlanta, and still retains red as one of its uniform colors. Questions in our database. Nine Ounces. The Cincinnati Red Stockings have no connection with the 1876-1880 and 1882-present day Cincinnati Reds other than being from the same town and inspiring those club’s names. The Reds are the oldest team in baseball. The Red Stockings won by a score of forty-eight to fourteen. Archived. We’re starting with the first Professional Team; The Cincinnati Reds. Originally called the Resolute Base Ball Club of Cincinnati, the name was soon changed to the Cincinnati Base Ball Club. The National Association of Base Ball Playersbanned the practice of paying players. In 1869, the Cincinnati Red Stockings became America’s first professional baseball club. The Cincinnati Reds are recognized as the first ever professional baseball team. The facility included a main grandstand (nicknamed the “Grand Duchess”), two wings of bleacher seats down each baseline, and a clubhouse. What are some physical benefits to be gained from playing baseball? Cincinnati Red Stockings. they were the first fully professional baseball team not the first baseball team. 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After playing four matches that summer, Cincinnati joined the NABBP for 1867 and concluded an agreement to play at the Union Cricket Club grounds (just west of Lincoln Park, a site now occupied by Cincinnati Union Terminal). Led by Harry and George Wright (no, not those Wright brothers), the Red Stockings, precursors to MLB's Cincinnati Reds, played baseball's first pro game on May 4, 1869, against the amateur Great Westerns of Cincinnati -- a game the Red Stockings won, 45-9. Major League Baseball recognized those events officially by sponsoring a centennial of professional baseball in 1969. Asa Brainard had been the Brooklyn Excelsiors' regular pitcher for four seasons, succeeded in 1867 by Candy Cummings. Andy Leonard rejoined Gould, the Wrights, and McVey in Boston for 1872, the first of four consecutive championship seasons there. The … The patch commemorates the Cincinnati Red Stockings, which, in 1869, become the first professional baseball team. u/Wakingupat9. Substitute Hurley is also a "major leaguer" for his brief play with the Olympics in 1872, although that club went out of business midseason and he did not return to the league. The original Cincinnati Red Stockings, baseball's first openly all-professional team, were founded in 1867, turning professional in 1869. The spokesmen anticipated "a development of the amateur talent of our club, such as has not been displayed since we employed professionals." Gould and McVey left in 1873, although McVey returned for 1874–75 only. [1] The Cincinnati Base Ball Club formed in 1866 and fielded competitive teams in the National Association of Base Ball Players (NABBP) 1867–1870, a time of a transition that ambitious Cincinnati, Ohio businessmen and English-born ballplayer Harry Wright shaped as much as anyone. The list below takes a look back at the franchise's legacy of "firsts" throughout the years. Everyone learned advanced points of play and, from their different perspectives, witnessed the gulf in playing strength. Before Cincinnati hired its team for the 1869 season, the strongest clubs were located from Washington to Troy, New York. The Executive Board now led by President A.P.C. In 1869, this was a good salary. QUICK BOOKS. The Pro Football Hall of Fame is located in Canton. 5 Questions. Eppa Rixey: Didn’t become a Red until he was 30 after a trade from the Phillies. Each player was paid a salary, with the highest paid player, shortstop George Wright, earning $1,400 per season - a value equal to almost $23,000 a year now. Some cynics said it wouldn’t last. STOCKINGS Share. When the NABBP permitted professional members for 1869, Harry Wright and probably George Ellard organized a fully professional team:[4] ten men on salary for eight months, March 15 to November 15. Wright (2000) has published records for dozens of NABBP teams and hundreds of games every season, relying on a mix of match and season records in contemporary newspapers and guides. First Professional Baseball Team: Flashback With the 2005 baseball season upon us along with steroids, a new team in Washington, the Red Sox and Yankees sure to go against each through the long season - it is always interesting to look back at the roots of the game. Hoover. Thanks partly to their on-field success and the continental scope of their tours, the Red Stockings established styles in team uniforms and team nicknames that have some currency even in the 21st century. The first official game of baseball in the United States took place in June 1846 in Hoboken, New Jersey.In 1869, the Cincinnati Red Stockings became America’s first professional baseball club. In 1871, he then put together the Boston Red Stockings, bringing over three of the members of the former Cincinnati Red Stockings. The Red Stockings engaged in sixty-five games without once losing, traveled nearly After one miss Harry won his last two championships as a non-playing manager in 1877–1878 with Leonard and brother George still among his regulars. Jan 8, 2018 - The 1869 Cincinnati Red Stockings were the first all-professional baseball team. Professional baseball, the first professional baseball team, the Cincinnati Red Stockings, baseball player while hitting the ball. The Cincinnati Red Stockings became baseball's first professional team in 1869. It's not a career record - it's taken from the best season any player had at that position in team history to create a lineup. Harry Wright remained the first pitcher, sharing that position and second base with Brainard, and three other incumbents remained in the outfield and at shortstop. In 1869 Harry Wright (the… Front row from left are Andy Leonard, Doug Allison, Asa Brainard and Charlie Sweasy This page was last edited on 18 October 2020, at 18:47. Cincinnati Red Stockings. About half of the 1868 Red Stockings were eastern imports, presumably compensated somehow. [5] They played over 60 games counting outside teams. The National League of Professional Baseball was formed with an eight-team circuit consisting of the Boston Red Stockings, Chicago White Stockings, Cincinnati Red Legs, Hartford Dark Blues, Louisville Grays, Philadelphia Athletics, Brooklyn Mutuals and St. Louis Browns. Catcher Doug Allison was from the Geary club of Philadelphia, one of the stronger clubs in that city. The first team won 16 matches with regional opponents, losing only to the touring Nationals from Washington. This was the first team to play on the East and West coasts in the same season. The 150th anniversary celebration honors the Red Stockings as baseball's first professional team, but that's far from the only time the Cincinnati Reds have set new standards in the game. One might think that was the ancestor of today's Boston Red Sox, but it was actually the original Boston Braves who later moved to Milwaukee and, finally, Atlanta. First Pro Team Cincinnati Red Stockings The country's first "all-professional" baseball team emerged in 1869, the Cincinnati Red Stockings, financed by a group of Ohio investors. George Ellard's son Harry, writing forty years later, is the principal source on the cricket club and the relationship between the two clubs, as well as George's personal role. They began with a 45-9 thumping of a team called the Great Western of Cincinnati, then proceeded to win nearly every one of its more than 70 games against overmatched amateur teams in the Midwest. There were some changes to the Cincinnati Reds' minor league system on Monday because Major League Baseball restructured the minor league pipeline. They finished the 1869 season with a record of 57-0. The team won 57 games and lost zero, counting only matches with Association clubs. The current Cincinnati Reds club identifies itself with the Cincinnati Red Stockings,[10] despite reorganization and defections in the early years. The Cincinnati Red Stockings, so named because they wore red socks, were baseball's first openly all-professional team. Initially most players were gentry – lawyers, bankers and merchants whose wealth allowed them to train and play as a hobby. Went 97-61 with a 2.83 ERA in his 10 seasons as a Red. The first season ended November 6 at home with the Cincinnatis beating the Mutuals of New York 17–8.[7]. That changed the year the Cincinnati Red Stockings, precursor to the modern Cincinnati Reds, paid all ten of their players (with the highest salary being $1,400) and created the first fully salaried baseball team in American history. Younger brother and shortstop George Wright, new to the team in 1869, was its best player, maybe the best of his time. This is our first baseball article looking at a brief history of every major league franchise, concluding with our selection of the franchises’ all time All Star Team. The officers subsequently decided to disband the company (the players having disbanded via the market) and a public meeting of the members put that decision into effect.[9]. How and where did baseball originate? The Red Stockings triumphed that day, 45 … QUOTABLE WOMEN. The 1869 Cincinnati Red Stockings were one of the first openly professional baseball teams in country. In 1867 and 1868, Cincinnati was beaten only by clubs from that eastern corridor, winning 16 and 29 games without defeat against western opponents. Your email address will not be published. The first game played by a team where all players were professionals and received pay for playing occurred on June 1, 1869, when the Cincinnati Red Stockings defeated the Mansfield Independents, an amateur club. The Cincinnati Base Ball Club, or simply Cincinnati Club, was established July 23, 1866, at a downtown law office, drawing up a constitution and by-laws and electing officers including Alfred T. Goshorn as president. The Red Stockings won their first game as a professional team on May 4, 1869 with a convincing 45-9 win over the Great Westerns of Cincinnati. In fact, prior to 1869 there wasn’t even a professional team to be seen anywhere in the United States. The first pro baseball team was called the. THE WORST PICTURE RAZZIE. The two leading batsmen, John Hatfield and Fred Waterman, arrived from the New York Mutuals, one of the strongest teams anywhere and another team pushing the bounds of the amateur code. Answer to The first professional baseball team was the : a . It became baseball's first openly all-professional team when it became fully professional in 1869. They then went on to go 57-1 (wins-tie), touring the U.S. playing teams from Boston to San Francisco, something that had not been done before. Cincinnati Reds 1869-present Also known as the Red Stockings and Red Legs. It began in England with a game called Rounders. The first truly professional team was the Cincinnati Red Stockings, established in 1869. In 1869, the Red Stockings posted a perfect 57–0 record,[8] the only perfect season in professional baseball history. The distinct Boston Red Stockings, beginning business with half of the Cincinnati team, both followed the young tradition and spread it to Boston. [6] Their commercial tour of continental scope, visiting both Boston and San Francisco, was unprecedented and may be essentially unrepeated. The salaries for players on the Cincinnati Red Stockings, the first professional baseball team, ranged from $800 to $1400 per year. Popular Categories View All. 5 Questions. Inspired by classical ideas of sportsmanship, its proponents arguedthat playing sport for a reason other than for th… Among them only Gould was a Cincinnati native; the others were from the East, presumably compensated somehow by club members if not by the clubs. Source []. Ten men composed the 1869 team and the First Nine returned for 1870 in the same roles. Team History []. It was founded in 1867, and the team had four paid players on the roster in 1868. Meanwhile, George Wright and McVey played in New York and Indianapolis, primarily at shortstop and pitcher.[12]. The first few decades of professional baseball were characterized by rivalries between leagues and by players who often jumped from one team or league to another. Library of Congress American Memory catalog page for "First Nine of the Cincinnati (Red Stockings) Base Ball Club" (lithograph). Mrs. Berthra Bertram of Elm Street made the uniforms for Cincinnati and many other clubs through the early eighties. This Major League Baseball season, fans may notice a patch on the players’ uniforms that reads “MLB 150.” The logo commemorates the Cincinnati Red Stockings, who, in 1869, became the first professional baseball team – and went on to win an unprecedented 81 straight games. Harry Wright’s younger brother, George Wright, played shortstop for the Cincinnati red-stockings and later the Boston Red Stockings. The Union Cricket Club was established 1856; George Ellard was president in 1867, span not reported, and he signed Harry Wright in 1865 (according to his son). 75. The overall records do not perfectly cover either all games played or all championship matches between NABBP members but the records of championship matches between professional members may be reliable. (National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum) The team won 130 straight games before disbanding in 1870. A few years later Goshorn earned international fame as Director-General of the (U.S.) Centennial Exposition held 1876 in Philadelphia. They began with a 45-9 thumping of a team called the Great Western of Cincinnati, then proceeded to win nearly every one of its more than 70 games against overmatched amateur teams in the Midwest. FC Cincinnati is a team in Major League Soccer, which began play in March 2019. The list below takes a look back at the franchise's legacy of "firsts" throughout the years. The first pro baseball team was the Cincinnati Red_____ strike. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. The First Professional Baseball Team Was the 1869 Cincinnati Red Stockings April 4, 2011 Daven Hiskey 5 comments Today I found out the first fully professional baseball team was the 1869 Cincinnati Red Stockings, ten men on salary for eight months from March 15th to November 15th. The 150th anniversary celebration honors the Red Stockings as baseball's first professional team, but that's far from the only time the Cincinnati Reds have set new standards in the game. Photo about mail, batter, 1869, paper - 184854680 Plans for a new clubhouse and "more substantical" enclosing fence were approved in April and the commercial basis was approved in June: members of both clubs admitted free to all matches; otherwise "ten cents for home matches and twenty-five cents for foreign matches. 2 years ago. They played their first official game of that season on May 4. Cincinnati Reds Team History & Encyclopedia. It is the only perfect season in baseball history. There was one local recruit, too, from the rival Buckeye club: Charlie Gould at first base. Actor Tom Hanks made mention of the Cincinnati Red Stockings - the Cincinnati Base Ball club that fielded the first known openly professional team in 1869 - … The first official game of baseball in the United States took place in June 1846 in Hoboken, New Jersey. The city of Cincinnati lays claim to hosting the first truly professional baseball team, called the Red Stockings, which began play in 1869 and was undefeated in its first 81 games against amateur clubs. [11] (The Association first permitted professional clubs for 1869.) Formed in 1869, the Cincinnati Red Stockings were the first professional baseball team. For 1871 the Nine split between two teams in the new all-professional National Association: Gould, the Wright brothers, and McVey with the Boston Red Stockings; Brainard, Allison, Sweasy, Waterman, and Leonard with the Washington Olympics. With the Reds and MLB marking 150 years since the Reds emerged as the first pro baseball team, let's look back at the 7 ballparks hosting the team since 1869. The leading substitute in the second season, Harry Deane joined the Fort Wayne Kekiongas in 1871 and later played a full season regularly. The National League would continue on with eight teams until … Enter the Cincinnati Red Stockings. They are minor league teams where players are trained and transferred to a major league team. Up until that time, baseball was a … The Red Stockings won by a score of forty-eight to fourteen. The 1869 Cincinnati Red Stockings were among the first openly professional baseball teams in history. The Cincinnati Red Stockings were the first professional baseball team, established in 1869. (Ellard 23–27). The two leagues did not interact until 1903, when the best team from each league began competing in the World Series. They finally lost a game in 1870, when the Brooklyn Atlantics bested them 8-7 in extra innings. On June 14, 1870, after 81 consecutive wins since assembling as the first openly professional team, the Cincinnati Red Stockings lost 8–7 to the Brooklyn Atlantics before a crowd of 20,000 at the Capitoline Grounds. How and where did baseball originate? The Cincinnati Base Ball Club, or simply Cincinnati Club, was established July 23, 1866, at a downtown law office, drawing up a constitution and by-laws and electing officers including Alfred T. Goshorn as president. Founding member George B. Ellard also led the Union Cricket Club, and the relationship between them proved decisive for the baseball club's success. Baseball's first openly all-professional team was the Cincinnati Red Stockings, who were founded in 1869. this president said baseball was the greatest of all team sports. Bonte recommended on November 21, 1870, that the club not employ a nine for 1871, for that had become too expensive. The team was soon nicknamed "Red Stockings" in reference to the main feature of the uniforms designed by Ellard; long stockings were then a novelty in team uniforms.[3]. A first-round pick out of high school in 2010 by the Brewers, Covey declined to sign after a post-Draft physical revealed he had diabetes, eventually turning pro as a fourth-rounder with the Athletics in 2013. The official website of the Cincinnati Reds with the most up-to-date information on scores, schedule, stats, tickets and team news. Your email address will not be published. The first professional baseball team, the 1869 Cincinnati Red Stockings, played their home games on this site in a ballpark called Union Grounds. The first was an amateur team founded on July 23, 1866 that was organized to compete against the Cincinnati Buckeyes. It will be unveiled on the anniversary of the team's first-ever game, played at 3:45 p.m. May 4 in Cincinnati against another, well, Cincinnati club. Before that, some teams had secretly paid some players. The Cincinnati Red Stockings of 1869 were baseball's first openly all-professional team, with ten salaried players. So Ohio has the base ball team Cincinnati Reds. The first game played by a team where all players were professionals and received pay for playing occurred on June 1, 1869, when the Cincinnati Red Stockings defeated the Mansfield Independents, an amateur club. The Boston Red Sox were not established until 1901. All owners agreed to play a seventy game schedule between April 22 and October 21. In 1869 the first all-professional baseball team to take the field wasn't the Red Sox but the Cincinnati these. 1869. The team became known as the Cincinnati Red Stockings due to its wearing knickers rather than the traditional trousers, with red knee socks- a costume condemned as "immoral" by the more prudish. TIL of the Cincinnati Red Stockings, the first professional baseball team. First Professional Team. On July 7, 2000, Great American Insurance Company, one of the oldest insurance companies in the United States, and the Cincinnati Reds, America's first professional baseball team, joined forces by announcing a 30-year agreement under which the new home of the Reds would be called Great American Ball Park. Ex-Cincinnati Red Stockings moved around some (see the note on Team members) but Boston retained both Wright brothers throughout the five years of the National Association. Weight in ounces of a baseball. Early stars for the Red Stockings included the Wrights, G… Cincinnati's best batsman was its left fielder, John Hatfield of New York who jumped back to the. Greg Rhodes, John Erardi and Greg Gajus: Baseball Revolutionaries: How the 1869 Cincinnati Red Stockings Rocked the Country and Made Baseball Famous, Independently Published, … SOUNDS LIKE IT TO ME. The team also announced on Wednesday that it had agreed to a one-year major league deal with infielder Kyle Farmer, who gets $640,000 while in the major leagues and $175,000 while in the minors. Boston Braves b . TIL of the Cincinnati Red Stockings, the first professional baseball team. If they were the first, who did they play. Posted by. a hit that gets the batter to first base safely. Professional baseball originated in Cincinnati, Ohio. (National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum) On May 4, Cincinnati took on its first NABBP opponent, the Great Western Base Ball Club of … The Cincinnati Reds of Major League Baseball were established in 1882. Close. Cincinnati fans take great pride in the team’s numerous historical firsts that have shaped baseball’s evolution since the groundbreaking all-professional 1869 Red Stockings. Bob Ferguson scored the winning run in the 11th inning on a hit by pitcher George Zettlein. The two leagues did not interact until 1903, when the best team from each league began competing in the World Series. After the Cincinnati Red Stockings were disbanded as a professional club, Harry Wright was hired by Ivers Whitney Adams to organize a new professional club in Boston with the first professional league. Cincinnati Red Stockings It all started in 1869 when the Cincinnati Red Stockings emerged as baseball’s first team of professional ballplayers, Mark says. In the years after the Civil War, baseball’s popularity exploded, and thousands of American communities fielded teams. Professional baseball originated in Cincinnati, Ohio. What was the first professional baseball team formed in 1869 was? Pitcher Asa Brainard earned $1,100 for the team’s first season. But the origin of professional baseball is undisputed: The first entirely professional team was supplied by the Cincinnati Red Stockings of 1869, a club that played from Maine to Cali-fornia wherever opposition could be found. The Red Stockings won 89 games in a row between 1869 & 1870, before the Brooklyn Atlantics defeated the Red Stockings. The Cincinnati Reds name was originally inspired by a previously existing team, the Cincinnati Red Stockings, which was the first fully professional baseball team. The following year, they won another 24 straight games before finally losing 8-7 in 11 innings against the Brooklyn Atlantics on June 14th. Although Major League Baseball counts 1869 as its founding year, which was the year that the first professional team, the Cincinnatti Red Stockings, was established, the American League was not formed until 1901. Although Major League Baseball counts 1869 as its founding year, which was the year that the first professional team, the Cincinnatti Red Stockings, was established, the American League was not formed until 1901. The Cincinnati Red Stockings won their first game on May 4th, 1869 by a score of 45-9. 380,162. CINCINNATI (AP) — The Cincinnati Reds declined to offer contracts to four players for the 2021 season, including reliever Archie Bradley, catcher Curt Casali and outfielder Brian Goodwin. Cincinnati Red Stockings. Further Reading []. 45 Questions. The first game played by a team where all players were professionals and received pay for playing occurred on June 1, 1869, when the Cincinnati Red Stockings defeated the Mansfield Independents, an amateur club. With the same regular nine, the 1870 team continued to win regularly, perhaps 24 games before losing 8–7 in eleven innings to the Brooklyn Atlantics in Brooklyn, June 14. George Ellard's son says that "a great number of the cricket club members" joined and so "the team was greatly strengthened and interest in baseball gained a new impetus." [citation needed]. Some cynics said it wouldn’t last. New York Yankees e The Boston Red Stockings eventually became the Boston Braves, which are now the Atlanta Braves. More than 2,000 people greeted the team when it arrived in San Francisco at 10:00 p.m. "They really helped nationalize the game and put Cincinnati on the map as a baseball town," said Greg Rhodes, a Reds historian who wrote The First Boys of Summer (Road West Publishing Company, 1994), along with Cincinnati Enquirer reporter John Erardi, about the 1869–1870 Red Stockings. The Cincinnati Red Stockings Baseball Club was founded in 1866, and three years later became the first fully professional baseball team in the U.S. by paying all of its players. Today I found out the first fully professional baseball team was the 1869 Cincinnati Red Stockings, ten men on salary for eight months from March 15th to November 15th. The 1868 team played a heavy schedule including a late eastern tour, once again dominating the western teams but losing seven of 43 matches in all. This former team had ten men on salary for eight months to play baseball for the Red Stockings. As for most hosts on that tour, it was a "bad loss" on the scorecard but an instructive one for Cincinnati: the players, the club, the fans, and perhaps the local newspapers. Required fields are marked *. Back row from left are Cal McVey, Charlie Gould, Harry Wright, George Wright and Fred Waterman. The Cincinnati Red Stockings became baseball's first professional team in 1869. Disbanded the following year, winning all of their games shuffling in and of! 17 … professional baseball originated in Cincinnati, OH: Tuchfarber, Walkley & Moellman road trips that,! 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[ 7 ] from left are Cal McVey, Charlie Gould, and already... 57 games and lost zero, counting only matches with regional opponents, losing only the! Finally lost a game in 1870 89 games in a row between 1869 & 1870, the... ’ s younger brother, George Wright and Fred Waterman benefits to be gained from playing?... In United States history, the Red Stockings won by a score of forty-eight to fourteen [ 6 ] commercial! Extra innings Wright, played shortstop for the next time I comment to take the field was n't the Sox!. [ 12 ] shuffling in and out of the Cincinnati Reds ' league! For eight months to play baseball for the team was the Cincinnati Reds the... U.S. ) Centennial Exposition held 1876 in Philadelphia compete against the Brooklyn Atlantics on June 14th Red! White flannel shirt ( plain seasons shuffling in and out of the former Cincinnati Red Stockings won by score... Only perfect season in baseball history in the same season team Cincinnati club! Baseball team as the Red Stockings, bringing over three of the first professional baseball club was! Waterman already manning the other bases Brainard had been the best player of that era the Wayne... Minor league pipeline this browser for the next time I comment finally losing 8-7 in innings... Be seen anywhere in the early years 65-0 record in 1869. fielder John... Pro Football Hall of fame is located in Canton Stockings were the first of four championship! Only losing 6 games all season best batsman was its left fielder, John Hatfield New. First professional baseball in the early eighties established in 1901, adopted their version of the members of the Cincinnati! Mcvey left in 1873, although McVey returned for 1870 in the 11th inning on hit... List below takes a look back at the franchise 's legacy of firsts.